Agreements At Sea

All bilateral agreements between the Soviet Union and NATO members were signed in the official languages of both parties. For all documents published in the Sea Journal, there are unofficial English translations – links are included according to the respective agreements. The agreements are listed below with links to English translations, if available. Twelve NATO allies had signed bilateral military agreements with the Soviet Union on preventing incidents at sea outside territorial waters. These allies are the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Norway, Spain, the Netherlands, Canada, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. Offshore oil was the centre of attraction in the North Sea. Britain, Denmark and Germany have been fighting over how to close the continental shelf and its rich oil resources. Unfortunately, the road to the market is long, hard and expensive. The nodules are two to three miles – about 5 kilometers – down in black water, where the pressure exceeds 7,000 pounds per square inch and temperatures are close to freezing. Many seabeds are filled with hills and insidious valleys.

To meet this environment, it is necessary to develop appropriate deepwater mining technology. In addition, the transformation would include such waste that specific arid sites would have to be found to carry out operations. However, others believe that the economic viability of seabed development would be significantly improved if a method of processing nodules at sea was developed, saving enormous energy costs associated with the transfer of nodules to onshore processing facilities. At the beginning of the conference, the states that maintained the traditional claims on a 3-mile coastal sea had counted only 25. Sixty-six countries had previously claimed a 12-mile limit for the coastal sea. Fifteen others claimed between 4 and 10 miles, and a large remaining group of eight states claimed 200 nautical miles. A number of new tasks are entrusted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. These include the tabling of diagrams and coordinates indicating the maritime borders of coastal states and assistance to the Commission beyond the borders of the continental shelf The Secretary-General is also invited to convene meetings of States Parties to elect members of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and adopt its budget. A review conference on the provisions relating to the exploitation of deep-sea mines or amending the convention may also be convened at state party meetings. Like other confidence-building measures, the maritime incident agreement has no direct impact on the size, weapons or power structure of the parties. Rather, it aims to improve mutual knowledge and understanding of military activities; Reduce the possibility of conflict by accident, miscalculation or miscommunication; and increase stability in times of calm and crisis. In 1983, Secretary of the Navy John Lehman called the agreement “a good example of how the navy process works in the navy” and attributed soviet-American relations to the area that it would be “better than worse.” In 1985, he found that the frequency of incidents was “much lower than it was in the 1960s and early 1970s.” Table presenting the state of the Convention in French 2.